Morphological classification of languages

Morphological classification of languages ??- typological classification of world languages ??depending on the principles of morphological structure of words.

According to this classification, all languages ??are divided into: root, agglutinative, inflectional and polysynthetic.

Root languages

In root languages, words don’t break down into morphemes: roots and affixes. Words of such languages ??are morphologically unformed units including indefinite words in the Ukrainian language there, here, from where, exactly where. The root languages ??are Vietnamese, Burmese, Old Chinese, largely contemporary Chinese. Grammatical relations among words in these languages ??are transmitted by intonation, service words, word order.

Agglutinative languages

Agglutinative languages ??consist of Turkic and Finno-Ugric languages. In their structure, additionally to the root, there are actually affixes (both word-changing and word-forming). The peculiarity of affixes in these languages ??is that each affix is ??unambiguous, ie each and every of them serves to express only one particular grammatical meaning, with what ever root it really is combined. This really is how they differ from inflectional languages, in which the affix acts as a carrier of numerous grammatical meanings at once.

Inflectional languages

Inflectional languages ??- languages ??in which the major part in the expression of grammatical meanings is played by inflection (ending). Inflectional languages ??contain Indo-European and Semitic-Hamitic. As opposed to agglutinative languages, exactly where affixes are paper writer unambiguous, typical and mechanically attached to full words, in inflectional languages ??the ending is ambiguous, non-standard, joins the base, that is generally not made use of without having inflection, and organically merges with the base, forming a single alloy, because of this, numerous adjustments can occur at the junction of morphemes. The formal interpenetration of contacting morphemes, which results in the blurring with the boundaries among them, is called fusion. Therefore the second name of inflectional languages ??- fusion.

Polysynthetic languages

Polysynthetic, or incorporating – languages ??in which distinct components of a sentence within the type of amorphous base words are combined into a single complex, similar to complicated words. Hence, inside the language with the Aztecs (an Indian persons living in Mexico), the word-sentence pinakapilkva, which implies I consume meat, was formed from the composition of your words pi – I, nakatl – meat and kvya – to consume. Such a word corresponds to our sentence. This really is explained by the truth that in polysynthetic languages ??distinctive objects of action and circumstances in which the action requires place is usually expressed not by individual members of the sentence (applications, circumstances), but by various affixes that happen to be aspect of verb forms. In element, the verb types incorporate the subject.

Typological classification of languages ??- a classification based on the identification of similarities and differences within the structure of languages, regardless of their genetic relatedness.

Thus, when the genealogical classification unites languages ??by their origin, then the typological classification divides languages ??by the functions of their structure, irrespective of their origin and place in space. Together with the term typological classification of languages, the term morphological classification is typically employed as a synonym. Such use with the term morphological classification of languages ??as opposed to typological classification of languages ??is unjustified and inappropriate for a number of factors. Initially, the word morphological is connected in linguistics with all the term morphology, which indicates the grammatical doctrine on the word as well as the structure from the word, not the language as a whole. By the way, some linguists comprehend the morphological classification: speaking of morphological, or typological, classification, we imply the classification of languages ??on the basis of morphological structure, word kind. In fact, the typological classification goes far beyond morphology. Secondly, in current years, numerous varieties of typological classification have become increasingly widespread: morphological, syntactic, phonetic, and so on.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *